Volume 14(2), March 2003
SHIFTING BASELINES, MARINE RESERVES, AND LEOPOLD'S BIOTIC ETHIC
James A. Bohnsack
Southeast Fisheries Science Center, NOAA Fisheries. 75 Virginia Beach Dr., Miami. Florida 33149, E-mail firstname.lastname@example.org
ABSTRACT Different human expectations and environmental ethics are key factors preventing the creation of marine reserve networks. People are skeptical about the benefits of no-take marine reserves because they have adjusted to scarcity and have low expectations about the productive capability of marine ecosystems. Pauly (1995) described this as a shifting baseline in which each generation sets its expectations based on its direct experiences and discounts experiences of previous generations. I show evidence of a declining Caribbean baseline based on Nassau grouper landings from Cuba and the U.S., and review common and often conflicting types of conservation ethics existing in North America. No-take marine reserves can help reestablish human expectations about resource productivity by restoring past conditions in places. Leopold's biotic ethic provides a framework for achieving sustainable resource use based on laws of ecology and human self-interest. Because changing expectations usually requires direct local experience, education, and changes in conservation ethics, implementing successful marine reserve networks will probably be a slow, incremental process. Establishing no-take reserves can help restore human expectations and provide a common basis for conservation by providing a window to the past and a vision for the future.
CROSS-SHELF HABITAT UTILIZATION PATTERNS OF REEF FISHES IN SOUTHWESTERN PUERTO RICO
John D. Christensen1, Christopher F.G. Jeffrey1, Chris Caldow1, Mark E. Monaco1, Matthew S. Kendall1, and Richard S. Appeldoorn2
1National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration, Center of Coastal Monitoring and Assessment, Biogeography Program, 1305 East West Highway SSMC-4, 9th Floor, Silver Spring, Maryland 20910 USA
2Department of Marine Sciences, University of Puerto Rico, Mayagüez, Puerto Rico 00781-9013 USA
ABSTRACT In June 2000, the National Ocean Service and University of Puerto Rico initiated a long-term reef-fish-monitoring program in La Parguera, Puerto Rico. Objectives of this ongoing work are to: 1) develop spatially-explicit estimates of reef fish habitat utilization patterns to aid in defining essential habitats, and 2) provide a quantitative, and ecologically sound foundation to delineate marine reserve boundaries. Central to this effort are recently completed digital and georeferenced benthic habitat maps for the near-shore waters of Puerto Rico. The GIS-based map served as a framework for development of a spatially stratified reef-fish-monitoring program across the shelf. Simultaneous collections of fish size and abundance data, and micro-scale habitat distribution and quality data were taken along a 25 x 4 m transect for each monitoring station. Sampling included coral reef, mangrove, and seagrass habitats within three cross-shelf zones unique to the insular shelf of La Parguera (inner lagoon, outer lagoon, and bank-shelf). A total of 106 stations were surveyed during the first year of sampling. Over 50,000 fishes, representing 123 species and 36 families were counted. Analyses showed clear patterns of habitat utilization across the seascape, and ontogenetic shifts in habitat selection within some species. Results also indicated that habitat type was more important than cross-shelf location in determining spatial patterns among reef fishes in the study area. Mesoscale spatially-explicit logistic models were developed to estimate distribution and expected density of some species among habitats.
HABITAT CONNECTIVITY IN COASTAL ENVIRONMENTS: PATTERNS AND MOVEMENTS OF CARIBBEAN CORAL REEF FISHES WITH EMPHASIS ON BLUESTRIPED GRUNT, HAEMULON SCIURUS
Jim Beets1, Lisa Muehlstein, Kerri Haught, and Henry Schmitges
1Jacksonville University, Department of Biology and Marine Science, 2800 University Blvd. N., Jacksonville, Florida 32211 USA, E-mail email@example.com
ABSTRACT Habitat connectivity within tropical marine seascapes may be greatly dependent on the movement of large organisms, particularly fishes. Using visual and trap sampling within two small bays in Virgin Islands National Park/Biosphere Reserve, St. John, U.S. Virgin Islands, we documented that large coral reef fishes, particularly large adult grunts, which shelter by day on coral reefs and make nocturnal feeding migrations into seagrass beds, accounted for the greatest biomass and abundance of fishes sampled in seagrass habitat. Using passive tags and sonic telemetry, we documented the nocturnal migration patterns of large adult grunts (bluestriped grunts, Haemulon sciurus), which are similar to the well-documented migration patterns of juvenile grunts. Large grunts showed high site fidelity to nocturnal foraging sites in seagrass beds. Sonic tagged grunts demonstrated little movement in their diurnal shelter sites in the boulder-coral zone, with most individuals making nocturnal migrations into the adjacent seagrass bed. These results provide evidence for strong linkage among adjacent habitats at a small spatial scale and emphasize the importance of inclusion of a diversity of habitats in Marine Protected Areas.
CONNECTIVITY BETWEEN COASTAL HABITATS OF TWO OCEANIC CARIBBEAN ISLANDS AS INFERRED FROM ONTOGENETIC SHIFTS BY CORAL REEF FISHES
I. Nagelkerken and G. van der Velde
Department of Animal Ecology and Ecophysiology, Section Aquatic Animal Ecology, University of Nijmegen, Toernooiveld 1, 6525 ED Nijmegen, The Netherlands, Phone: +31-24-3652471, Fax: +31-24-3652134, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
ABSTRACT Mangroves and seagrass beds are considered important nursery habitats for juveniles of coral reef fishes. Studies have mostly focused on the fish community of just one habitat, so the connectivity between different coastal habitats is often unclear. In this study, density and size of reef fish were determined using a single sampling technique in four non-estuarine bay habitats and four reef zones in Curaçao and Bonaire (Netherlands Antilles). The data indicate that of the complete reef fish community at least 21 species show ontogenetic cross-shelf shifts in habitat utilization. The 21 species mainly utilized shallow-water habitats (mangroves, seagrass beds, channel and shallow reef) as nursery habitats and the deeper coral reef zones (>5 m depth) as adult life stage habitats. Fish species utilized 1-3 different nursery habitats simultaneously, but habitat utilization clearly differed between species. Previous studies showed that the dependence on these nursery habitats is very high, based on reduced density or absence of adults on coral reefs where these habitats were absent. The strong connectivity between several coastal habitats during the ontogeny of various commercially important reef fish species is evidence for the inclusion of bay habitats within boundaries of fishery reserves or marine protected areas.
HABITAT CONNECTIVITY IN REEF FISH COMMUNITIES AND MARINE RESERVE DESIGN IN OLD PROVIDENCE-SANTA CATALINA, COLOMBIA
R.S. Appeldoorn1, A. Friedlander2, J. Sladek Nowlis3, P. Usseglio4, A. Mitchell-Chui4
1Department of Marine Sciences, University of Puerto Rico, Mayagüez, Puerto Rico 00681-9013
2Oceanic Institute, Makapu'u Point/41-202 Kalanianaole Hwy, Waimanalo, Hawaii 96795 USA
3The Ocean Conservancy, 116 New Montgomery Street, Suite 810, San Francisco, California 94105 USA
4Corporation para el Desarrollo Sostenible del Archipielago de San Andres, Providencia y Catalina. Carrera 14 No. 1-40. San Andrés Islas, Colombia
ABSTRACT On the insular platform of Old Providence/Santa Catalina, Colombia, we compared nearshore lagoonal patch reefs to those on the northern bank distant from the islands to determine the importance of habitat connectivity to fish community structure. Nearshore patch reefs had greater proximity to mangrove, seagrass and rocky shore habitats, and they had significantly more individuals. Nearshore reefs also tended to have a greater total biomass, more species, a higher proportion of predators of mobile invertebrates and small fishes, and a lower proportion of herbivores. Biomass of snappers and grunts at nearshore sites was four times greater compared to bank sites, and was correlated with the amount of seagrass and sand/rubble habitat within 500 m of each patch reef. We also compared length-frequency distributions and abundances of grunts and snappers among all sites (deep and shallow forereefs, patch reefs and deep and shallow leeside slopes). The results were consistent with ontogenetic migrations from shallow sites, primarily seagrass and mangrove habitats, to deeper sites and to those further out on the bank. The evidence suggests that species differed in both distance and direction of dispersal, which may be affected by the abundance and distribution of preferred habitats. Marine reserves near the islands should target nearshore nursery areas and patch reefs harboring species of limited dispersal capability. Reserves on the northern bank would protect spawners of those species showing the greatest dispersal capability.
ESTIMATING QUEEN CONCH (STROMBUS GIGAS) HOME RANGES USING ACOUSTIC TELEMETRY: IMPLICATIONS FOR THE DESIGN OF MARINE FISHERY RESERVES
Robert A. Glazer1, Gabriel A. Delgado2 and James A. Kidney2
1Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, Florida Marine Research Institute, 2796 Overseas Hwy, Suite 119, Marathon, Florida 33050 USA, Phone 305-289-2330, Fax 305-289-2334, E-mail email@example.com
2Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, Florida Marine Research Institute. 2796 Overseas Hwy, Suite 119, Marathon, Florida 33050 USA
ABSTRACT Marine reserves (MRs) may function as a vital tool in the conservation and management of marine resources if source populations are managed for the benefit of those downstream. Consequently, it is critical to evaluate the home range of marine animals to ensure that MRs are large enough to protect source populations. We used acoustic telemetry to study movements of adult queen conch (Strombus gigas) within aggregations at two sites in the Florida Keys from June 1997 through July 1998. A total of 68 conch were tagged and tracked for up to one year. Latitude and longitude of each conch were recorded biweekly and data used to estimate the minimum speed, degree of site fidelity, and home range of each animal. Conch showed significantly greater displacement/time during the summer. There were no significant differences in movement rate, site fidelity, or size of home range between males and females. Mean home range was 5.98 ha. Based on estimated home ranges of the aggregations, the size and location of the existing reserves at these two sites were inadequate to protect the conch aggregations should the fishery reopen.
SPAWNING AGGREGATION SITES OF SNAPPER AND GROUPER SPECIES (LUTJANIDAE AND SERRANIDAE) ON THE INSULAR SHELF OF CUBA
Rodolfo Claro1 and Kenyon C. Lindeman2
1Instituto de Oceanología. CITMA, Ira #18406, Playa, La Habana, Cuba
2Environmental Defense, 14630 SW 144 Terr., Miami, Florida 33186 USA
ABSTRACT Twenty-one spawning aggregation sites on the Cuban shelf were identified for eight species of snappers (Lutjanus) and groupers (Epinephelus and Mycteroperca) using information from experienced fishers and field studies. Three sites are on the southeastern shelf, eight on the southwest shelf bordering the Golfo de Batabanó, two in the northwest, and eight in the north-central region along the margins of the Archipiélago de Sabana-Camagüey. These numbers may reflect sampling effort as much as absolute aggregation numbers, with most effort concentrated in the southwest and north-central regions. Additional studies, particularly field assessments, are needed to determine the current status and consistency of occurrence of many of these aggregations. Most sites occur near the shelf drop-off at depths of 20-50 m, over reef substrates. Some sites involve sequential use by multiple species over several seasons of the year. Fishing activities have impacted many of these aggregations, both during spawning events and during pre-spawning migrations. This information is being applied in the design of marine reserve networks for several Cuban archipelagos. Intraspecific variations in aggregation formation occur temporally among differing regions of Cuba. Such variations reinforce the need for expanded research efforts on spawning aggregations.
THE INTERACTION OF RETENTION, RECRUITMENT, AND DENSITY-DEPENDENT MORTALITY IN THE SPATIAL PLACEMENT OF MARINE RESERVES
Jennifer E. Caselle, Scott L. Hamilton, Robert R. Warner
Department of Ecology, Evolution and Marine Biology, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106, USA, Phone 805-893-5144, FAX 805-893-4724, E-mail firstname.lastname@example.org
ABSTRACT Population density can affect rates of mortality and individual growth. We measured these for the non-exploited bluehead wrasse, Thalassoma bifasciatum, at three sites around St. Croix, US Virgin Islands. Previous work demonstrated that differences in the degree of larval retention in these sites results in very large differences in recruitment intensity. Post-settlement mortality differed among sites and was positively related to recruitment density. Post-settlement growth differences were small. Because of strong mortality effects early in life, adult densities and size/age distributions differed among sites and did not reflect differences in recruitment rate. The site with the highest retention and recruitment (Butler Bay) had many small fish, while the two other sites with lower recruitment rates (Jacks Bay and Green Cay) had proportionally more large fish. These differences resulted in large differences in egg production. Per capita production was highest at the lowest density site (Green Cay). Total egg production at Green Cay was 75% that at Butler Bay, despite only having half the population size, and the highest overall production was at Jacks Bay, with low retention and moderate recruitment. In terms of marine reserve location, sites predicted to have high retention and recruitment may not always be the sites of highest egg production due to density-dependent processes, and it is important to consider the relative values of self-recruitment and larval export in reserve design.
THE EXTENT AND SPATIAL SCALE OF CONNECTIVITY AMONG REEF FISH POPULATIONS: IMPLICATIONS FOR MARINE PROTECTED AREAS DESIGNATED FOR FISHERIES ENHANCEMENT
Peter F. Sale1 and Stuart A. Ludsin2
1Corresponding Author: Department of Biological Sciences, University of Windsor, Windsor, ON Canada N9B 3P4, Phone 519-253-3000 ext. 2727, FAX 519-971-3609, E-mail email@example.com
2Department of Biological Sciences, University of Windsor, Windsor, ON Canada N9B 3P4, Phone 519-253-3000 ext. 2723, FAX 519-971-3609, E-mail firstname.lastname@example.org
ABSTRACT Enthusiasm for the use of no-take marine protected areas (MPAs) as management tools for the protection and enhancement of coral reef fishes is widespread. However, evidence that such marine reserves actually enhance fishery yields is limited, primarily because of difficulties in quantifying the exchange of individualsespecially larvaebetween local populations within and outside the protected area. Knowledge of the extent and spatial scale of this connectivity is of vital importance for the effective design and implementation of marine reserves intended as fishery management tools. We review our current understanding of connectivity among coral reef populations, including the role of important determining factors such as pelagic larval duration, larval behavior, and hydrodynamics. We also discuss artificial and natural tagging methods that potentially can be used to track movements of larvae between marine reserves and surrounding waters. To illustrate the application of such methods, we discuss ECONAR (Ecological CONnections Among Reefs), a new, regional-scale research project designed to measure the extent of connectivity among populations of coral reef fishes in the Mesoamerican Barrier Reef System.
THE ROLE OF LONG DISTANCE DISPERSAL VERSUS LOCAL RETENTION IN REPLENISHING MARINE POPULATIONS
Robert K. Cowen1, Claire B. Paris2, Donald B. Olson2, and John L. Fortuna2
1Corresponding Author: Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science, Division of Marine Biology and Fisheries, 4600 Rickenbacker Causeway, Miami, Florida 33149-1098 USA, Phone (305) 361-4023, Fax (305) 361-4600, E-mail email@example.com
2Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science, University of Miami, 4600 Rickenbacker Causeway, Miami, Florida 33149 USA
ABSTRACT Early models and evidence from genetics suggested that long distance dispersal of larvae is likely a common event leading to considerable population connectivity among distant populations. However, recent evidence strongly suggests that local retention is more the rule, and that long distance transport is likely insufficient to sustain marine populations over demographic timescales. We build on earlier model results to examine the probability of larval dispersal to downstream islands within different regions of the Caribbean at varying distances from source populations. Through repeated runs of an ocean circulation model (MICOM), coupled with a random flight model estimating larval sub-grid turbulent motion, we estimate the likelihood of particular circulation events transporting large numbers of larvae to within 9km radii of downstream populations, as well as account for total accumulations of larvae over each year. Further, we incorporate realistic larval behavior and mortality estimates and production variability into our models. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that marine populations must rely on mechanisms enhancing self-recruitment rather than depend on distant 'source' populations.
A CARIBBEAN-WIDE SURVEY OF MARINE RESERVES: SPATIAL COVERAGE AND ATTRIBUTES OF EFFECTIVENESS
Richard S. Appeldoorn1 and Kenyon C. Lindeman2
1Department of Marine Sciences, University of Puerto Rico, Mayagüez, Puerto Rico 00681-9013
2Environmental Defense, Caribbean Field Office, 14630 Southwest 144 Terr., Miami, Florida 33186-5617 USA
ABSTRACT Fully-protected marine reserves can function at several spatial scales, from a single area encompassing few habitats, to local networks of many habitats to large-scale networks connected by larval dispersal. However, the amount, spatial distribution, and associated administrative attributes of Caribbean marine reserves are collectively unknown. We compiled information on reserves from 21 countries in order to 1) assemble a spatial framework to aid development of networks of reserves at the most effective spatial scales, and 2) aid policy makers in establishing reserves that are science-based and possess optimal management attributes. Since 1961 there have been over 50 reserves established in the Caribbean (an additional 30 in Bermuda) with the rate of implementation increasing since the mid 1980s. Most reserves are small (< 1.200 ha) and few contain the range of habitats necessary for protecting species through their ontogeny. Habitats are often not fully characterized, and the role of reserves in protecting and networking different habitats cannot be ascertained. Reserves are distributed throughout the region, with the highest density in Mesoamerica; but significant geographic gaps exist. It is unlikely that reserve-enhanced larval production significantly networks populations on a regional basis, although this may occur subregionally (e.g.. Mesoamerica). Less than 20% of the reserves were scored as fully compliant, but half offer potentially significant levels of protection.
COMMUNITY-BASED DEVELOPMENT OF MULTIPLE-USE MARINE PROTECTED AREAS: PROMOTING STEWARDSHIP AND SHARING RESPONSIBILITY FOR CONSERVATION IN THE SAN ANDRES ARCHIPELAGO, COLOMBIA
Marion Howard, Ernesto Connolly, Elizabeth Taylor, and June Marie Mow
CORALINA, San Luis Road, Bight, San Andres Island, Colombia
ABSTRACT The San Andres Archipelago in the western Caribbean includes some of the largest and most productive coral reef ecosystems in the hemisphere. Declared the Seaflower Biosphere Reserve by UNESCO in 2000, this Colombian archipelago has 3 inhabited islands, 5 atolls, and an oceanic area of 300,000 km2. CORALINA, the local representative of the National Environment System, is responsible for environmental planning, management, and education. While setting up the Seaflower Biosphere Reserve, this agency had hundreds of meetings with the islands' communities, listening to their concerns. Issues, conflicts, and threats to marine and coastal areas were identified during these consultations. In response, CORALINA developed a project to establish a system of multiple-use marine protected areas (MPAs). Stakeholder consultation and community outreach programs were set up to facilitate participation in planning and implementation. Language and cultural differences, poverty, a history of powerlessness, and negative attitudes toward authorities are realities that have to be confronted when working with these communities. Although only in the design stage, the high level of stakeholder involvement in planning has resulted in widespread support of the MPAs. Lessons have already been learned that lead to recommendations on engaging local communities in MPA development.
COMMUNITY CAPACITY BUILDING IN THE DESIGNATION OF THE TORTUGAS ECOLOGICAL RESERVE
Joanne M. Delaney
NOAA/Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary, P.O. Box 500368, Marathon, Florida 33050 USA, E-mail firstname.lastname@example.org
ABSTRACT The remote Tortugas region of the Florida Keys, located over 225 km from the continental United States, is an area of high coral diversity, excellent water quality, and productive fisheries. Located at the juncture of major ocean currents, the Tortugas potentially serves as a source and sink for marine larvae. The Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary initiated a process in 1998 to create a fully protected ecological reserve in the Tortugas to conserve these resources. Reserve design emphasized community input and consensus-based decision-making. Critical to success was a diverse working group of stakeholders and government agencies. In July 2001, after receiving extensive public comment and the necessary agency approvals for designation, the Sanctuary implemented a 518-km2 Tortugas Ecological Reserve. This fully protected marine reserve is expected to preserve biodiversity, maintain ecosystem integrity, and act as a reference site to discriminate between natural and anthropogenic changes to the ecosystem. The Tortugas Ecological Reserve complements the Sanctuarys existing network of 23 fully protected zones, instituted in 1997 to protect marine resources from overuse, conserve biodiversity, and separate uses. The Tortugas Ecological Reserve is the largest fully protected marine reserve in the United States.
THE BARBADOS (ALIAS FOLKESTONE) MARINE RESERVE, BARBADOS: A LATE BLOOMER?
Robin Mahon1 and Michael B. Mascia2
1Coastal and Marine Management Program, Caribbean Conservation Association, Chelford, Bush Hill, St. Michael, Barbados, Phone/Fax 246-432-7415, E-mail email@example.com
2Department of the Environment, Duke University Marine Laboratory, Beaufort, North Carolina 28516, USA
ABSTRACT The Barbados Marine Reserve (BMR) is a 2.2 km no-take marine reserve occupying one of the most intensely used and impacted sections of the coast and comprises four zones: Scientific, Northern Watersports, Recreational, Southern Watersports. Establishment of the BMR in 1981 did little to change the de facto marine resource governance regime for the area. There was minimal consultation of stakeholders in determining the zoning and regulations. Fishers were negatively impacted, and no usergroup derived significant benefits from the reserve. A mandate to maximise revenues led the National Conservation Commission (NCC), responsible for BMR management, to virtually abandon the reserve. Efforts to spur institutional change were not effective, because of the centralized authority of the NCC and the belief that the BMR could not generate revenue. In 1998, the Government initiated a study to reform marine resource governance within the BMR and adjacent areas. Stakeholder consultation revealed complex patterns of use in the area. Recommendations, adopted by the Government in March, 2001 included establishing a broader Marine Protected Area (MPA) along an expanded coastline (from 2.6 km to 9.5 km) with seven types of management zones, and renaming the area as the Folkestone Marine Managed Area. Also proposed was a Marine Management Area Authority, within the Ministry of the Environments Coastal Zone Management Unit, to designate and manage MPAs.
FISHERY MANAGEMENT MEASURES INSTITUTED AT DISCOVERY
BAY, JAMAICA, WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO ESTABLISHMENT OF
THE FISHERIES RESERVE
Jeremy Woodley, Zsolt Sary, Peter Gayle
Fisheries Improvement Programme, Discovery Bay Marine Laboratory, University of the West Indies (Mona), Jamaica
ABSTRACT Jamaican north coast coral reef fish stocks have been over-exploited. The Fisheries Improvement Programme (FIP) began in 1988 to help fishers at Discovery Bay to introduce management measures. Social and cultural constraints included poverty and distrust among fishers. FTP initiated: 1) an education programme in reef fisheries and the possibilities of local management; 2) encouragement of a Discovery Bay Fishermens Association; in 1994, Association members agreed on a voluntary protected area within Discovery Bay; 3) a Reserve Planning Group, representing all users of the bay; 4) contract with Fishermens Association: grant funds were transferred to it to employ rangers; 5) marking and daily patrols within the Reserve starting in 1996; and 6) legalization of the Reserve, which was not obtained. Within two years of Reserve protection, fishers perceived an increase in fish abundance and asked that the protected area be extended. Studies on fish populations in 1996-98, showed that the Reserve delayed age and size at recruitment to the fisheries and enhanced catches in adjacent waters. The failure to gain legal status and lack of funds to maintain patrols after 1999, led to decline in compliance with the voluntary restrictions on fishing. Lessons are discussed.
IMPROVING APPLICATIONS OF SCIENCE IN MPA DESIGN AND MANAGEMENT: WORKSHOP REPORT
K.C. Lindeman1 and R.S. Appeldoorn2
1Environmental Defense, 14630 SW 144 Terr., Miami, Florida 33186 USA, E-mail firstname.lastname@example.org
2Department of Marine Sciences, University of Puerto Rico, Mayagüez, Puerto Rico 00681-9013, E-mail email@example.com
HUMAN SYSTEM CONNECTIVITY: A NEED FOR MPA MANAGEMENT EFFECTIVENESS
Patrick McConney1, Leah Bunce2 and Georgina Bustamante3
1Caribbean Conservation Association, Chelford, Bush Hill, The Garrison, St. Michael, Barbados, Email firstname.lastname@example.org
2International Program Office #5839, National Ocean Service, National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration, 1315 East-West Highway N/IP, Silver Spring, MD 20910 USA, Email email@example.com
3The Nature Conservancy, South Florida Office, 2455 East Sunrise Blv., Penthouse South Fort Lauderdale, FL 33304 USA, Email firstname.lastname@example.org