Sierra Leone is a constitutional democratic republic with a directly elected president and a unicameral parliament of 124 seats. Both President and Parliament serve five year terms. In the parliament, 112 seats are elected by popular vote and paramount chiefs (elected separately) fill the other 12.

The present APC government and President Ernest Bai Koroma were elected in August/September 2007 for a five year term. The APC won 59 of the elected seats; the SLPP won 43 seats and the People's Movement for Democratic Change (PMDC), a new party which broke away from the SLPP shortly before the elections, won 10 seats. The APC subsequently won three by-elections, brought about by the resignation of APC parliamentarians who were named ministers (parliamentary and government office are incompatible).

President Koroma has publicly stated his priorities will be to improve energy supplies; strengthen the Anti-Corruption Commission; and increase employment. Local elections were held in July 2008.